CXCL9 concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with tick-borne encephalitis
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Submission date: 2015-10-05
Final revision date: 2015-12-03
Acceptance date: 2015-12-19
Online publication date: 2016-03-22
Publication date: 2018-02-28
Arch Med Sci 2018;14(2):313–320
Introduction: The aim of our current study was to evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum CXCL9 concentrations and diagnostic usefulness of this molecule in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). The study included TBE patients in the acute phase (TBE I) and after 2 weeks of follow-up (TBE II). The control group consisted of patients investigated for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infection, but with normal CSF findings.
Material and methods: Concentrations of CXCL9 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: Cerebrospinal fluid and serum concentrations of CXCL9 in patients with TBE were significantly higher than in controls (p < 0.001). This alteration was also observed in the case of the CXCL9 index (ICXCL9; CSF CXCL9 concentration divided by serum CXCL9 concentration) (p < 0.001); moreover, ICXCL9 significantly decreased after 2 weeks (p < 0.001). This is the first study to evaluate the CSF and serum levels of CXCL9 in subjects with TBE.
Conclusions: CXCL9 is a ligand for CXCR3, which was found on all Th1 memory lymphocytes present in the peripheral blood; therefore the elevated concentrations of CXCL9 in TBE patients as compared to the controls might indicate that this chemokine perhaps takes part in the trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS. The results presented here support the hypothesis that CXCL9 may play a role in TBE. However, further studies are required to determine whether this protein might be used as a potential tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammation in TBE.