Clinical research
Diagnosis of true umbilical cord knot
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Submission date: 2010-09-09
Final revision date: 2010-12-20
Acceptance date: 2011-01-19
Online publication date: 2013-02-18
Publication date: 2014-02-20
Arch Med Sci 2014;10(1):91–95
Introduction: Many abnormalities are observed in the morphology and pathology of the umbilical cord. The aim of the study was to assess the role of 3D sonography in pathology of true umbilical cord knots.
Material and methods: In our materials we observed 10 cases of true umbilical cord knots in a population of 2,864 deliveries. The 2-dimensional transverse scan of the umbilical cord was shown in 3- and 4-dimensional volume scan in order to get a precise image.
Results: Four knots were diagnosed prenatally, 3 knots were not diagnosed before the delivery and in the 3 remaining cases ultrasound examinations were not undertaken because the patients were in the course of delivery. In the pregnant subjects with diagnosed true umbilical cord knot once a week the Doppler blood flow indices were examined in the umbilical cord sections before and after the knot. In the three shown cases there were no signs of constriction or tightening of the knot. Four newborns were delivered spontaneously and five by caesarean section. In none of the cases was a pathological FHR trace an indication for emergency delivery.
Conclusions: Four-dimensional and Color Doppler examination is very important to diagnose a true umbilical cord. To make a precise diagnosis a longer observation of the abnormality is necessary and its repeated confirmation by color Doppler and power Doppler. This diagnosis requires strict monitoring of fetal wellbeing during pregnancy and the delivery. Perfection of true umbilical cord knot diagnoses may reduce sudden and unforeseen fetal distress.