Identification and follow-up of pregnant women with platelet-type human platelet antigen (HPA)-1bb alloimmunized with fetal HPA-1a
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Submission date: 2016-05-04
Final revision date: 2016-08-08
Acceptance date: 2016-08-21
Online publication date: 2016-11-15
Publication date: 2018-08-07
Arch Med Sci 2018;14(5):1041–1047
Pregnant women negative for human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) are at risk of alloimmunization with fetal HPA-1a antigen inherited from the father, and their offspring may develop fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of HPA-1a alloimmunization in pregnant Polish women, the feasibility of using maternal platelets for intrauterine transfusions in women subjected to diagnostic fetal blood sampling (FBS) and to discuss potential consequences of alloimmunization.

Material and methods:
Fifteen thousand two hundred and four pregnant women were typed for HPA-1a; HPA-1a negative were screened for anti-HPA-1a. Alloimmunized women received specialist perinatology care; some of them were subjected to FBS, followed by transfusion of HPA-1a negative platelet concentrates (PC) prepared from maternal blood.

Three hundred seventy-three (2.5%) women were HPA-1a negative, and 32 (8.6%) tested positively for anti-HPA-1a. Antibodies were detected in 22 women during pregnancy. Diagnostic FBS followed by PC transfusion was performed in 14 woman, who were platelet donors for their 16 unborn babies. Blood donations were tolerated well by the patients, and also intrauterine platelet transfusions were uneventful. Pharmacotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulins was implemented in 11/22 patients.

HPA-1a negative women (ca. 2.5% of all pregnant patients) are at risk of alloimmunization with HPA-1a antigen and developing FNAIT. Alloimmunized women can be donors of platelets for their offspring providing removal of antibodies from PC. Owing to potential complications, special care should be taken if an alloimmunized woman was qualified as a blood or stem cell recipient.