Arterial stiffness is associated with target organ damage in subjects with pre-hypertension
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Submission date: 2017-06-17
Final revision date: 2017-06-28
Acceptance date: 2017-07-01
Online publication date: 2017-07-31
Publication date: 2018-10-31
Arch Med Sci 2018;14(6):1374–1380
Present study was to evaluate whether increased arterial stiffness was associated with target organ damage in pre-hypertensive subjects.

Material and methods:
Pre-hypertensive subjects enrolled and echocardiography was used to evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the first morning urine was collected to evaluate albumin and creatinine ratio (ALB/Cr ratio). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) was measured.

A total of 420 subjects were recruited and mean age was 42.6 years. Mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were 130 ±9 mm Hg and 85 ±4 mm Hg. The prevalence of albuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy was 8.6 % and 11.7 %. Mean cf-PWV was 9.2 ±1.0 m/s, with arterial stiffness prevalence was 8.8%. Subjects with arterial stiffness had higher cf-PWV value (10.6 ±0.4 m/s vs. 8.7 ±0.6 m/s, p < 0.05), and ALB/Cr ratio (28.3 ±13.2 µg/mg vs. 23.1 ± 11.4 µg/mg, p < 0.05). Overall, with multivariate regression analysis, aging and arterial stiffness were significantly associated with pre-hypertension. With stepwise adjusted for potential covariates including age, male gender, fasting plasma glucose, presence of current cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, statins and SBP, increased cf-PWV remained independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and albuminuria, with an increased odds of 41 % and 24 % (p < 0.05), respectively.

In pre-hypertensive subjects, arterial stiffness is independently associated with LVH and albuminuria and cf-PWV may be a useful marker to identify target organ damage in pre-hypertensive subjects.