Association of spironolactone treatment and arterial stiffness and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive patients
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Department of Cardiology, FuWai Hospital Chinese Academic of Medical Science, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
Submission date: 2019-03-22
Final revision date: 2019-05-06
Acceptance date: 2019-05-09
Online publication date: 2019-06-06
Arch Med Sci 2022;18(5)
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the association of spironolactone and arterial stiffness and composite cardiovascular disease (CVD, including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and ischemic stroke) in hypertensive patients.

Material and methods:
Baseline data were collected and arterial stiffness was presented by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) using applanation tonometry. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein and creatinine were measured using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were determined by radioimmunoassay. The associations of spironolactone and arterial stiffness and composite CVD were evaluated.

Compared to patients without spironolactone (n = 274), those with spironolactone (n = 170) were older and more likely to have diabetes and chronic heart failure. No differences in antihypertensive medications used were observed except for spironolactone. Mean number of antihypertensive medications used was significantly higher in the spironolactone group (2.6 ±0.8 vs. 2.2 ±0.6). Compared to patients without spironolactone, those with spironolactone had significantly lower cf-PWV (9.4 ±1.8 vs. 10.1 ±2.2 m/s). After adjustment for covariates, spironolactone was still associated with 10% lower risk of arterial stiffness, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.85–0.97. In patients without arterial stiffness, after adjustment for covariates, no significant association of spironolactone and composite CVD was observed. However, in patients with increased arterial stiffness, after adjustment for covariates, spironolactone was still independently associated with 11% lower risk of composite CVD (95% CI: 0.83–0.97).

Spironolactone treatment is independently associated with lower cf-PWV and lower prevalence of composite CVD in patients with increased arterial stiffness.