Association of micronuclei frequency and other nuclear anomalies with flaxseed diet in metabolic syndrome patients
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Departamento de Disciplinas Filosófico, Metodológico e Instrumentales; Departamento de Morfología. Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG); División de Medicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO)-IMSS. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Departamento de Enfermería Clínica Aplicada (DECA), CUCS, UdG, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Departamento de Salud Pública, CUCS, UdG. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México; Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 51, Delegación Jalisco, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Zapopan, Jalisco, México
Servicio de Nutrición Clínica, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Instituto de Terapéutica Experimental y Clínica, Departamento de Fisiología, CUCS, UdG. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Universidad del Valle de México, Zapopan, Jalisco, México
Coordinación de Planeación, CUCS, UdG. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Bioquímica, Instituto Tecnológico de Jiquilpan. Jiquilpan, Michoacán, México
Submission date: 2020-01-13
Final revision date: 2020-05-27
Acceptance date: 2020-06-04
Online publication date: 2020-07-13
This study aimed to investigate whether a rich flaxseed diet could modify the micronuclei frequency, nuclear anomalies and biochemical and anthropometric parameters in metabolic syndrome patients.

Material and methods:
Fifty-eight patients with metabolic syndrome were dichotomized into two groups, namely, the control group (CG) and the intervention group (IG), and the patients in the IG received a diet supplemented with flaxseed. The anthropometric and clinical parameters were measured. Nuclear anomalies isolated from the oral mucosa were analyzed at the beginning and end of the 3-month follow-up.

After the nutritional follow-up, the percentage of fat was decreased in the CG (before, 45.40%; after, 37.89%, p < 0.001). In the IG, the weight (before, 81.03 ±13.17 kg; after, 79.81 ±13.47 kg, p = 0.01), body mass index (before, 32.7 ±5.4; after, 32.2 ±5.6, p = 0.009) and very-low-density lipoprotein (before, 31.96 ±15.23; after, 26.13 ±7.54, p = 0.04) were decreased. The frequencies of MN (micronucleated) and BN (binucleated) cells were decreased in the CG (before, 14.03 ±5.28, after 11.17 ±3.68; before, 2.66 ±3.5, after, 1.10 ±1.66; p = 0.001/0.02, respectively), while in the IG, the frequencies of MN and BN cells and NB (nuclear buds) were decreased (MN before, 4.97 ±5.47, after, 1.38 ±1.97 [p = 0.02]; BN before, 23.69 ±21.93, after, 10.66 ±10.34 [p = 0.007]; and NB before, 5.10 ±6.63, after, 2.17 ±2.74 [p = 0.03]).

The group that consumed a diet supplemented with flaxseed showed greater decreases in weight, body mass index and very-low-density lipoprotein than the CG. The numbers of nuclear anomalies were decreased in both groups, but greater mean decreases in micronuclei and binuclear cells were observed in the IG after 3 months.

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