Basic research
Inhibitory effect of midazolam on MMP-9, MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression in PMA-stimulated human chondrocytes via recovery of NF-κB signaling
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Submission date: 2011-08-22
Final revision date: 2011-11-22
Acceptance date: 2011-12-05
Online publication date: 2012-10-08
Publication date: 2013-04-30
Arch Med Sci 2013;9(2):332–339
Introduction: Midazolam, a benzodiazepine, has a hypnotic effect and is widely used as an intravenous sedative. Past studies have clearly established that midazolam has beneficial effects in attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury more than other currently used sedative drugs. However, the role of midazolam on chondroprotection via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is warrant investigation. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms of action of midazolam on MMP expression via nuclear factor ĸB (NF-ĸB) signaling in activated chondrosarcoma cells maintained in vitro.
Material and methods: Chondrocytes, SW1353 cells, were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in the absence or presence of various concentrations of midazolam (5-20 µM). Release of MMP-9 into the culture media was determined by gelatin zymography. The expressions of MMP-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and degradation of IκB-α were determined by western blotting assay.
Results: Midazolam significantly down-regulated PMA-induced MMP-9 protein expression at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μM, the values were 1.95 ±0.09 (p < 0.01), 1.71 ±0.12 (p < 0.01) and 1.35 ±0.20 (p < 0.001), respectively. At concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 μM, it was significantly inhibited the PMA-induced expressions of MMP-1 (2.27 ±0.10, 1.98 ±0.11 and 1.56 ±0.15; p < 0.001) and MMP-13 (0.89 ±0.04, 0.81 ±0.07, and 0.74 ±0.09; p < 0.001), respectively. Midazolam at concentrations of 10 and 20 μM for 15 min significantly reversed the rate of degradation (0.895 ±0.051; p < 0.05 and 0.926 ±0.060; p < 0.01, respectively) of IκB-α in PMA-chondrocyte cells. In addition, this sedative drug inhibited PMA-induced levels of phos-ERK (1.243 ±0.12, 1.108 ±0.16 and 0.903 ±0.19, respectively) and phos-p38 (1.146 ±0.10, 1.063 ±0.13 and 0.946 ±0.18, at concentrations of (5, 10 and 20 μM), respectively.
Conclusions: These results are important for understanding the mechanism of midazolam in inhibiting PMA-induced MMP expression through the signaling pathways of either NF-kB or ERK/p38 MAPKs down-regulation.