Clinical research
HLA-DR, HLA-DQB1 and PTPN22 gene polymorphism: association with age at onset for autoimmune diabetes
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Submission date: 2012-05-30
Final revision date: 2012-08-16
Acceptance date: 2012-08-20
Online publication date: 2012-11-07
Publication date: 2012-10-31
Arch Med Sci 2012;8(5):874-878
Introduction: Autoimmune diabetes has different clinical manifestations related to the age at onset. It is divided into several subtypes, including “classical” type 1 diabetes (T1D) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). The LADA is considered a slowly progressing subtype of autoimmune diabetes, although the clinical picture is more similar to type 2 diabetes.
Material and methods: The aim of this study is to investigate whether genetic predisposition influences age at onset in autoimmune diabetes. We studied rs2476601 PTPN22 gene polymorphism and HLA DR, HLA-DQB1 in 175 patients with classical type 1 diabetes, 80 LADA, and 151 control subjects from north-east Poland.
Results: The frequencies of the PTPN22 TT genotype were higher in the group of patients with classical type 1 diabetes (6.3%) and LADA (11.3%) than in control subjects (0.7%) (p = 0.02 and p = 0007, respectively). In patients with classical type 1 diabetes we observed an increasing trend in frequencies of genotype TT dependent on age at onset (3.9% (0-5 year olds), 6.0% (6-15 year-olds), 8.2% (16-25 year olds), p = 0.048). The incidence of predisposing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes HLA DR3/DQB1*02 and DR4/DQB1*0302 was found to decrease in the group with type 1 diabetes in relation to age at onset and LADA (HLA DR3/DQB1*02 – 69.2% (0-5 year olds), 57.0% (6-15 year olds), 51.0% (16-25 year olds), 46.3% (LADA), p = 0.032; HLA DR4/DQB1*0302 – 80.8% (0-5 year olds), 63.0% (6-15 year olds), 51.0% (16-25 year olds), 43.8% (LADA), p = 0.0003), and to increase for the protective allele DQB1*0602 (0.0% (0-5 year olds), 1.0% (6-15 year olds), 2.0% (16-25 year olds), 6.3% (LADA), p = 0.029).
Conclusions: Thus, age at onset for autoimmune diabetes appears to be related to a combination of predisposing and protective HLA alleles. Against a background of HLA genetic predisposition, other non-HLA loci may influence age at onset for late autoimmune diabetes.
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