SYSTEMATIC REVIEW/META-ANALYSIS
Polyunsaturated fatty acid status and risk of type 1 diabetes in infants and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis
 
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1
Clinical Laboratory Center, Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China
2
Department of Hospital Management, Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China
3
Department of Endocrine and Metabolism, Shaoxing People’s Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital of Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China
Submission date: 2019-08-02
Final revision date: 2019-12-23
Acceptance date: 2020-02-18
Online publication date: 2020-11-29
 
 
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ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The existing findings about the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status (especially long-chain n-3 PUFAs) and the risk of preclinical or clinical type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children are controversial. This review aimed to evaluate the definite association.

Material and methods:
Three databases were systematically viewed until July, 2019 to identify relevant articles, without language restriction. Any observational study or randomized controlled trial reporting the risk estimates of preclinical or clinical T1D for PUFA status in infants and children was enrolled. Regardless of the statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I2 statistic, we pooled the odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) through random-effects models.

Results:
Five observational studies were enrolled in the meta-analysis. The status of n-3 PUFAs was negatively and significantly associated with the risk of preclinical, but not clinical, T1D (pooled RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73–0.99) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 72.2%). However, no such association was found between n-6 PUFA status and the risk of preclinical or clinical T1D.

Conclusions:
The meta-analysis suggests that n-3 PUFA might play a potential protective role in the cause of preclinical T1D, and n-3 PUFA intake may be beneficial, since the n-3 PUFA status was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of preclinical T1D in children. Nevertheless, more well-designed prospective studies are necessary to determine whether dietary or supplemental intake of specific n-3 PUFA alters the risk of preclinical T1D.

eISSN:1896-9151
ISSN:1734-1922