Clinical research
The risk of cholelithiasis in patients after heart transplantation
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Submission date: 2012-04-13
Final revision date: 2012-12-01
Acceptance date: 2012-12-01
Online publication date: 2014-02-23
Publication date: 2014-02-20
Arch Med Sci 2014;10(1):53-57
Introduction: Extended immunosuppressive treatment in patients after heart transplantation modifies etiopathogenesis and occurrence of many diseases in this population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and to define risk factors for cholelithiasis after heart transplantation (HTX).
Material and methods: The study population consisted of 176 subjects. Of them, 24 patients (group A) presented with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Another group of 24 patients without cholelithiasis (group B) served as controls. Both groups were similar with respect to age, gender and follow-up after the transplant. Clinical interview, surgical and hospitalization data were collected from medical records.
Results: The groups did not differ in demographic features. There were statistical differences (p < 0.05) between group A and B in rejection reaction, doses of immunosuppressive drugs, type 2 diabetes, serum lipid disorders and acute rejection episodes. These events were caused by modification of treatment, especially the immunosuppressive regimen. Group A consisted of 75% men and 25% women. The frequency of symptomatic cholelithiasis was 11.7% in men and 27.3% in women, on average 19.5%. Mean time to cholelithiasis following HTX was 37.9 ±4.9 (Me = 41.5) months, 27.7 ±8.2 (Me = 30.0) months in women and 41.3 ±5.9 (Me = 41.5) months in men. The female to male ratio was 2.3 : 1.
Conclusions: Cholelithiasis following HTX was significantly more frequent as compared with the non-transplant population. Patients with cholelithiasis required more aggressive immunosuppression because of more frequent episodes of acute transplant rejection. Patients with cholelithiasis significantly more frequently showed increased glycemia and blood lipids, which could be the side effect of intensive immunosuppressive therapy.
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