STATE OF THE ART PAPER
How to balance the treatment of stress urinary incontinence among female athletes?
 
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1
Department of Mother’s and Child’s Health, Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Rehabilitation, School of Health Science in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
3
Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
4
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Evangelical Hospital Hagen-Haspe, Hagen, Germany
Submission date: 2020-07-14
Final revision date: 2020-09-08
Acceptance date: 2020-10-01
Online publication date: 2020-10-21
 
Arch Med Sci 2021;17(2)
 
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ABSTRACT
Urinary incontinence in the general population occurs in 7% of non-pregnant women under 39 years old, 17% of those 40 to 59 years old, and 23–32% of those over 60 years old. In athletes the prevalence is higher, especially in high-impact training and gravity sports. Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) have two important roles; they serve as the support for abdominal organs and are crucial for closure of the urethra, vagina and rectum. We present the proper mechanisms of PFM caudal contractions with proper abdominal muscle control to avoid excessive intra-abdominal pressure. Pelvic floor sonography is discussed as the only objective method for pelvic floor examination among sportswomen and a tool which should be used routinely by urophysiotherapists and urogynecologists. A multidisciplinary individualized approach to stress urinary incontinence among athletes is presented including: physiotherapy, diagnostic imaging, use of a pessary, tampons, pharmacologic and surgical treatment. We present guidelines for stress urinary incontinence treatment in sportswomen of different age.
eISSN:1896-9151
ISSN:1734-1922