Uterine fibroids (UFs) are benign tumors of the female reproductive system originating from the smooth muscle of the uterus. Currently, progesterone is known to play a key role in the differentiation of the myometrial tissue to form UFs and their abnormal growth. The mechanism of action of progesterone in UF tumorigenesis involves its effect on increasing the concentrations and dysregulation of selected growth factors.

Material and methods:
A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate and compare tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) serum concentrations in patients with UFs without prior hormonal treatment, patients with UFs treated with a 3-month standard ulipristal acetate (UPA – a type of selective progesterone receptor modulator) scheme (5 mg/day) and in control patients without UFs. A total of 120 patients were divided into 3 groups (controls, UFs with UPA treatment, UFs without UPA treatment).

There were no significant differences in TNF-α serum concentrations between patients with UFs who underwent UPA treatment and patients who did not. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 and PAI-1 did not show significant intergroup differences.

No significant differences were found between TNF-α concentrations in the serum of patients with UFs treated with UPA, and patients without UPA treatment. In addition, our data analysis did not show significant differences in the concentrations of IGF-1 and PAI-1 between patients with UFs and the control group. Further studies on the dependence of specific symptoms on selected growth factors are mandatory.

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