Multiple studies suggest that cancer leads to activation of clotting and fibrinolysis pathways, elevating the risk of thromboembolic events. Kidney cancer is often complicated by clotting disorders. In this study, we hypothesized that preoperative clotting and fibrinolysis parameters are altered in healthy volunteers and kidney tumor patients. We also hypothesized that these differences may be associated with survival in patients who have undergone operations due to kidney tumors.

Material and methods:
In this study, 96 patients with kidney tumors and 30 healthy volunteers were recruited at a single university center. All patients were assessed for pre-operative serum concentrations of tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, total TFPI, full-length TFPI, truncated TFPI), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), von Willebrand factor (vWF), clotting factor XIII A1 (FXIIIA1), D-dimers, and fibrinogen. Additionally, standard peripheral blood morphology was evaluated.

Malignant kidney tumors were diagnosed in 85 of 96 tumor patients. In patients with kidney tumors, there were statistically significantly higher concentrations of fibrinogen, D-dimers, TAT, PAF, TF, TFPI, vWF, FXIIIA1, and leukocyte counts compared to the control group. Statistically significant correlations were found between multiple parameters. This points to significant clotting system alterations. Cox stepwise hazard analysis showed that pre-operative fibrinogen and D-Dimer concentrations were significantly associated with survival.

In patients with kidney tumors, multiple clotting and fibrinolysis parameters are significantly altered. Routine pre-operative measures should include determination of fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations as these markers aid in prediction of survival probability.