Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells have better restorative capacity than bone marrow-derived cells in a cerebellar ataxic rat model
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt
Submission date: 2019-09-22
Final revision date: 2020-01-10
Acceptance date: 2020-02-02
Online publication date: 2020-11-13
Regenerative treatment using stem cells represents a potentially effective therapy for cerebellar ataxia (CA). We compared the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a rodent monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced CA cell (BM-MSC) model.

Material and methods:
Female Wistar rats (n = 40) were equally divided into a saline-treated control group and 3 MSG-induced CA groups randomly treated with either saline, or 1 × 106 ASCs or BM-MSCs. We assessed the following: 1) cerebellar motor functions in vivo (by Rotarod test, open-field test, and Quantitative gait analysis); 2) cerebellar histological architecture; and 3) cerebellar immunohistochemical examination of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as in indicator of apoptosis, and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as neuroprotective factors.

Treatment with either of the MSCs improved MSG-induced poor motor performance, restored the disrupted Purkinje cell layer, decreased neuronal apoptosis and enhanced cerebellar VEGF and IGF-1 levels observed in CA rats. Adipose tissue stem cells showed superiority over BM-MSCs in the improvement of some motor performance parameters and cerebellar VEGF and IGF-1 levels.

In conclusion, both stem cell types induced structural, physiological, and biochemical improvement, with ASCs being best for treatment of CA.