Central precocious puberty (CPP) is a rare disease of poorly understood etiology. The cause is mostly idiopathic. However, congenital and acquired structural changes in the central nervous system are also involved. Prevalent organic changes in the central nervous system, especially among boys, prompt imaging assessment in each case of CPP. In addition, genetic and environmental factors have been reported. Safe and effective treatment is available. The time of treatment implementation is crucial to the successful outcome. Proper diagnosis and treatment make it possible to avoid a number of complications of untreated CPP. There are only a few studies analyzing the prevalence and risk factors for the disease. The aim of this paper is to discuss the current causes of CPP with particular consideration of neurological aspects.
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