EQ-5D-5L Polish population norms
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Submission date: 2014-10-27
Final revision date: 2015-02-11
Acceptance date: 2015-02-26
Online publication date: 2015-06-09
Publication date: 2016-12-22
Arch Med Sci 2017;13(1):191–200
Introduction: The new, five-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire has better psychometric properties than the standard three-level version (EQ-5D-3L), including a reduced ceiling effect. Currently, there are few existing population norms for the EQ-5D-5L. The aims of this study were to provide population norms for the EQ-5D-5L in Poland, based on a representative sample of adults, and to compare those with norms from other countries.
Material and methods: Members of the general public, selected through multistage stratified sampling, filled in paper-and-pencil EQ-5D-5L questionnaires in the presence of an interviewer. EQ-5D-5L index values were estimated using an interim value set, based on a crosswalk methodology. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the EQ-5D-5L index. The distribution of answers was obtained for the descriptive part of the EQ-5D-5L.
Results: The sample was representative of the Polish population in terms of age, gender, geographical region, education, and socio-professional group. Population norms were developed based on 3963 questionnaires with no missing data. At least one slight, moderate, severe, and extreme health limitation was reported by 61.5%, 31.1%, 12.4%, and 1.6% of the respondents, respectively. Polish society is characterized by poorer health, as compared to its direct neighbor, Germany, especially with regard to the individuals’ perception of pain, as well as anxiety and depression.
Conclusions: Polish population norms for the EQ-5D-5L should encourage clinicians, economists, and policymakers in Poland to use this questionnaire on a broader scale.