Inhibitory effect of PDGF-BB and serum-stimulated responses in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by hinokitiol via up-regulation of p21 and p53
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Submission date: 2015-04-30
Final revision date: 2015-06-15
Acceptance date: 2015-06-30
Online publication date: 2018-04-16
Publication date: 2018-04-13
Arch Med Sci 2018;14(3):579–587
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation plays a major role in the progression of vascular diseases. In the present study, we established the efficacy and the mechanisms of action of hinokitiol, a tropolone derivative found in Chamaecyparis taiwanensis, Cupressaceae, in relation to platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and serum-dependent VSMC proliferation.

Material and methods:
Primary cultured rat VSMCs were pre-treated with hinokitiol and then stimulated by PDGF-BB (10 ng/ml) or serum (10% fetal bovine serum). Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and lactose dehydrogenase assay, respectively. The degree of DNA synthesis was evaluated by BrdU-incorporation measurements and observed using confocal microscopy. Immunoblotting was utilized to determine the protein level of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p-Akt, p-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), p-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), p-p53, and p21Cip1. The promoter activity of p21 and p53 activity were measured by dual luciferase reporter assay.

Treatment with hinokitiol (1–10 µM) inhibited PDGF-BB and serum-induced VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was not observed in hinokitiol-treated VSMCs at the studied concentrations. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with hinokitiol did not alter PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, PI3K or JAK2. Interestingly, hinokitiol induced promoter activity of p21 and p21 protein expression in VSMCs. Furthermore, hinokitiol augmented p53 protein phosphorylation and subsequently led to enhanced p53 activity.

These data suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of hinokitiol in VSMCs may be mediated by activation of p21 and p53 signaling pathways, and it may contribute to the prevention of vascular diseases associated with VSMC proliferation.