Chorioamnionitis is one of the most important maternal complications in the expectant management of patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Procalcitonin (proCT), the precursor of the hormone calcitonin, is used to differentiate bacterial infections from non-bacterial ones. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of maternal serum procalcitonin levels in the early prediction of chorioamnionitis in women with PPROM.

Material and methods:
The study was conducted in 76 pregnant women hospitalized due to PPROM at the maternal-fetal medicine unit of a tertiary center in Istanbul. Patients were followed up with white blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and proCT levels every 2 days. The values of investigated parameters were recorded at the diagnosis of PPROM and at the time of delivery. The maximum values during the follow-up period were also recorded.

Out of the 76 patients with PPROM, 15 (19.73%) developed clinical chorioamnionitis. No significant difference could be detected in the gravidity, parity, duration of hospitalization and gestational week at diagnosis between those patients who developed clinical chorioamnionitis and those who did not. The WBC at the time of hospital admittance and before delivery, and CRP levels before delivery were statistically higher in the chorioamnionitis group (p < 0.05). No difference in the proCT levels could be detected either at the time of hospital admittance or before delivery between the two groups.

Maternal proCT was not found to be predictive of chorioamnionitis. However, since there are reports in the literature that contradict these results, further studies are warranted to determine the true efficacy of proCT in the prediction of clinical chorioamnionitis.