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Thyroid diseases in patients with acromegaly
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Submission date: 2012-01-13
Final revision date: 2012-05-24
Acceptance date: 2012-06-14
Online publication date: 2013-08-12
Publication date: 2014-08-31
Arch Med Sci 2014;10(4):837–845
Acromegaly often involves the presence of different pathologies of the thyroid gland. Long-lasting stimulation of the follicular epithelium by growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) can cause disorders in thyroid function, an increase in its mass and the development of goitre. Acromegalic patients present most frequently with non-toxic multinodular goitre. Nodules are more prevalent in patients with active acromegaly. It has been suggested that then thyroid size increases and it can be reduced through treatment with somatostatin analogues. The relationship between thyroid volume and the level of IGF-1 and the duration of the disease is unclear. Each acromegalic patient requires a hormonal and imaging evaluation of the thyroid when the diagnosis is made, and an accurate evaluation during further observation and treatment. Although the data concerning the co-occurrence of acromegaly and thyroid cancer still remain controversial, it is particularly important to diagnose the patient early and to rule out thyroid cancer.