ENDOCRINOLOGY / STATE OF THE ART PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked recessive genetic syndrome that occurs as result of an androgen receptor mutation; it affects the normal masculinization process in chromosomal male patients. More than 900 androgen receptor mutations that can lead to AIS have been identified. The complete androgen insensitivity is characterized by a total lack of response to androgens, usually in patients with 46XY karyotype but with feminine phenotype. Primary amenorrhoea and inguinal swellings in female patients are the main signs that could raise suspicion for this syndrome. Patients with partial androgen insensitivity have ambiguous genitalia at birth and gynecomastia during puberty, whereas those with mild androgen insensitivity present a normal male phenotype but altered spermatogenesis during adulthood and pubertal gynecomastia. The diagnosis of AIS often proves to be a challenge; its management is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach to meet decision-making challenges in sex assignment, fertility and timing of gonadectomy, psychological outcomes and genetic counselling.
eISSN:1896-9151
ISSN:1734-1922