The incidence and risk factors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants included in the Polish National Program for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis
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NZOZ VM Care, Cracow, Poland
Department of Neonatology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Cracow, Poland
Róża Borecka   

Pediatric Unit, Independent Public Health Care Center, ul. Szpitalna 2, 32-400, Myślenice, Poland
Submission date: 2020-05-22
Final revision date: 2020-08-23
Acceptance date: 2020-09-07
Online publication date: 2021-03-21
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease diagnosed in premature infants, which may cause severe respiratory failure due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and severity of BPD in infants born before 28 weeks of gestational age (GA) enrolled into the Polish National Program for RSV Prophylaxis (PNPRSVP).

Material and methods:
A retrospective analysis of data on children born in 2013 included in a prophylaxis program during the seasons 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. The following data were evaluated: the need for oxygen therapy for at least 28 days and the need for oxygen therapy at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA).

The analysis was carried out in a group of 603 children, who constituted 87.7% of the population entitled to prophylactic administration of palivizumab. BPD was diagnosed in 80.9% of extremely preterm infants; however, in 70.7% of cases the disease was mild. The risk factors for the development of BPD were GA, birth weight and birth weight below the 10th centile for GA. During the program, the median number of doses received was 5 (range 1–5), and 82.3% of children received all of the expected doses.

Although the incidence of BPD in extremely preterm infants was high, mainly its mild form was recognized. Monitoring of the incidence of the disease and identifying the risk factors can be carried out effectively based on long-term data collected during the PNPRSVP.