Material and methods:
We used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 to calculate the incidence rates of and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to nutritional deficiencies in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019.

During this period, the age-standardized incidence rate of nutritional deficiencies remained stable globally (EAPC = –0.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): –0.20 to 0.09) and increased the most in high–middle-sociodemographic-index (SDI) areas. In addition, at the region level, from 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate of nutritional deficiencies increased the most in South Asia, whereas at the country level, it increased the most in Czechia (EAPC = 1.81) and Turkey (EAPC = 1.45). Furthermore, from 1990 to 2019, the global age-standardized DALY rates due to nutritional deficiencies decreased (EAPC = –2.91), especially in East Asia, Andean Latin America, and Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa.

From 1990 to 2019, the age-standardized incidence rate of and DALY rates due to nutritional deficiencies remained high in low–middle- and low-SDI areas, and Southeast Asia, Czechia, and Turkey had the highest levels of nutritional deficiencies.

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