The role of selected adipokines in tumorigenesis and metabolic disorders in patients with adrenal tumors
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Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland
Submission date: 2019-04-30
Final revision date: 2019-07-24
Acceptance date: 2019-08-12
Online publication date: 2020-03-04
Publication date: 2023-03-01
Arch Med Sci 2023;19(2):467–477
Recently, more and more attention has been directed to the role of adipose tissue and adipocytokines in the pathogenesis of metabolic and inflammatory disorders in humans. Excess fat tissue has also been associated with a higher risk of malignancies. Advances in the research on the role of adipokines in adrenal tumors may elucidate the relationship between various types of adipose tissue (visceral, subcutaneous, and periadrenal) and metabolic disorders observed in hormonally active adrenal tumors, as well as associations with adrenal cortex cancer. In patients with active or cured Cushing syndrome, increased leptin and resistin concentrations as well as release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can be associated with cardiovascular risk. Also, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with primary hyperaldosteronism may affect the metabolic activity of the adipose tissue. Elevated resistin concentrations in this group of patients are associated with morphological changes of the myocardium independently of the effects of the metabolic syndrome. Further, it has been suggested that hypoadiponectinemia comprises an additional factor in the pathogenesis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders and the risk of cardiovascular complications in pheochromocytoma patients. Understanding the mechanisms of action of adipokines may be important in developing prophylactic and therapeutic strategies in hormonally active and malignant tumors of the adrenal glands.