Basic research
Incidence and risk predictors for osteonecrosis of the jaw in cancer patients treated with intravenous bisphosphonates
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Submission date: 2013-03-15
Final revision date: 2013-03-31
Acceptance date: 2013-04-23
Online publication date: 2015-04-23
Publication date: 2015-04-30
Arch Med Sci 2015;11(2):319–324
Introduction: The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in oncologic patients and to determine risk predictors with respect to this condition.
Material and methods: This retrospective review included 197 oncologic patients treated from January 2005 to December 2010 with administration of bisphosphonates (BPs) as part of management. Sex, age, type of cancer diagnosed, period of substantial disease, oral surgery, type of bisphosphonate, number of doses, and cases of BRONJ diagnosis were recorded. The cumulative incidence and incidence rate of BRONJ were calculated. The factors that influenced BRONJ were assessed with multivariate logistic regression and with estimations of 95% confidence intervals and odd ratios. Values of p ≤ 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: The BRONJ appeared in 9.64% of patients. The BRONJ incidence rate was 1 in 28 patients per year of BP treatment. Logistic regression showed that the odds of osteonecrosis increased 1.0172-fold with each given dose of BP. The BRONJ risk with zoledronate was 5-fold higher than that with pamidronate or ibandronate. The risk of BRONJ increased by 40-fold after dental surgery.
Conclusions: Period of BP administration and type of BP used are important risk predictors for the development of BRONJ in oncologic patients treated with intravenous administration of these drugs. Patient-related factors are dental or periodontal events connected with need for oral surgery.