Clinical research
Heart function disturbances in chronic kidney disease – echocardiographic indices
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Submission date: 2014-10-21
Final revision date: 2014-12-01
Acceptance date: 2014-12-01
Online publication date: 2014-12-22
Publication date: 2014-12-17
Arch Med Sci 2014;10(6):1109–1116
Introduction: In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction occurs frequently and is associated with heart failure (HF) and higher mortality. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and is a major determinant of prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess indices of LV diastolic dysfunction in CKD patients.
Material and methods: Study included 118 CKD patients. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Diastolic function based on E and A, E/A ratio and pulmonary vein flow velocities as well as EF%, deceleration time, RA, LA volume were assessed. In dialysis patients examination was carried out before and after dialysis.
Results: In CKD patients the stage of renal failure was associated with the significant increase in LV mass (268.0 ±47.6 CKD I/II vs. 432.7 ±122.4 CKD V/dialysis, p < 0.0001), systolic LV (37.3 ±4.5 vs. 51.2 ±8.9, p < 0.0001) and diastolic LV (CKD I–II 44.7 ±4.1 vs. CKD III 48.5 ±6.7 vs. CKD IV 47.1 ±5.6; p = 0.004) dimensions and in the size of the LA (40.4 ±2.0 vs. 41.9 ±2.7 vs. 42.3 ±3.2 vs. 44.8 ±3.1; p < 0.0001). The increase the E/E’ ratio between groups of patients (6.7 ±1.5 vs. 8.9 ±2.4 vs. 11.5 ±4.0 vs. 13.5 ±5.0; p < 0.0001) was seen in this study. The reduction in deceleration time (247.2 ±34.5 in CKD I/II vs. 197.4 ±61.0 in CKD IV, p = 0.0005) along with the decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was also observed in this study.
Conclusions: Early identification of factors involved is necessary to prevent this devastating process. Many indexes of contractility are used and each of them has imperfections. It seems that TVI, E, E/A and E/E’ are good instruments for the early detection of left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.