Clinical research
Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in Turkish women: the Trabzon GDM Study
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Submission date: 2013-11-13
Final revision date: 2014-02-06
Acceptance date: 2014-02-07
Online publication date: 2015-08-11
Publication date: 2015-08-10
Arch Med Sci 2015;11(4):724–735
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Turkish pregnant women in the Trabzon Region and further to identify population-specific risk factors for GDM.
Material and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional survey, universal screening for GDM was performed in 815 pregnant women. Screening was done with a 50-g oral glucose challenge test (GCT) with a 140 mg/dl cut-off point, then a diagnostic 100 γ oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed according to Carpenter and Coustan (CC) criteria.
Results: The GCT was positive in 182 (22.3%) cases. The OGTT was performed on the 182 screen-positive pregnant women. Thirty-five were diagnosed with GDM on the basis of their results for a prevalence of 4.3% (35/815). Of the pregnancies with negative GCT but having high risk factors for GDM (n = 31), 4 were diagnosed with GDM (0.5%). Prevalence of GDM was found to be 4.8% (n = 39) for all pregnant women. Gestational diabetes mellitus was positively associated with advanced maternal age (p < 0.001), prepregnancy body mass index (p < 0.001), cessation of cigarette smoking (p < 0.001), excessive weight gain during pregnancy (p = 0.003), previous history of GDM (p < 0.001), history of selected medical conditions (p = 0.018), family history of diabetes (FHD) (p < 0.001), and existence of at least one high risk factor for GDM (p < 0.001). In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent predictors for GDM were maternal age, cessation of cigarette smoking, increasing prepregnancy body mass index, weight gain of more than 8 kg during pregnancy, GDM history in previous pregnancies and a history of diabetes in first-degree relatives of pregnant women.
Conclusions: The prevalence of GDM in Trabzon province was found as moderate. Commonly recognized risk factors including older age, prepregnancy obesity, FHD and past history of GDM, are valid for our urban Turkish population. Also, excessive weight gain in pregnancy and cigarette cessation were observed to be nontradional risk factors of GDM. It was concluded that all pregnant women should be screened for GDM if prevalence was not low.