Clinical research
The association of bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone with serum magnesium in adult patients with sickle-cell anaemia
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Submission date: 2010-12-17
Final revision date: 2011-05-12
Acceptance date: 2011-06-11
Online publication date: 2012-05-09
Publication date: 2012-04-30
Arch Med Sci 2012;8(2):270–276
Introduction: Bone disorders including osteopenia and osteoporosis are a frequent cause of morbidity in sickle-cell disease (SCD). Magnesium (Mg) regulates some biological processes important in bone remodelling. We aimed to investigate whether serum Mg levels (sMg) may have an impact on bone mineral density (BMD) in sickle-cell anaemia (SCA).
Material and methods: Sixty adults with SCA in steady-state and 20 age- and race-matched healthy blood donors were included in the study. The BMD was evaluated with respect to minerals and biochemical indices of bone metabolism. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the factors influencing BMD.
Results: The mean sMg concentration was 0.64 ±0.06 (reference range 0.7-1.2 mmol/l) for 34% of the population, and 0.86 ±0.08 mmol/l for 66%. There were significant differences between Mg groups and controls in BMD, phosphorus (PO4), parathyroid hormone (PTH) (p = 0.011, p = 0.011 and p = 0.0001 respectively) and osteocalcin (OC) (p = 0.030) levels. The sMg was found to be associated positively with serum calcium (Ca), PTH and OC (r = 0.585; r = 0.436; r = 0.351 respectively, all at
p < 0.05), and negatively with PO4 (r = –0.312; p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only PTH (p < 0.05) was an independent factor for BMD. Moreover, it identified sMg, OC, and CTX as independent factors for PTH (all p < 0.05).
Conclusions: These results indicate that serum Mg may be a co-contributing factor in causing low BMD. However, other possible aetiologies including decreased PTH and increased bone turnover certainly play a role. Based on the present data, it is prudent to monitor sMg routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible.