ONCOLOGY / RESEARCH PAPER
Correlation between KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations and tumor localizations in patients with primary and metastatic colorectal cancer
 
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1
Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
2
Institute of Genetics and Immunology GENIM LLC, Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Oncology and Chemotherapy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
4
Department of Oncology, Medical University of Poznań, Poznań, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Aleksandra Bożyk   

Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2018-12-12
Final revision date: 2019-04-23
Acceptance date: 2019-05-06
Online publication date: 2021-03-24
 
Arch Med Sci 2022;18(6)
 
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ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Detection of abnormalities in the KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes is extremely important for proper qualification of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients for therapy with anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) monoclonal antibodies. However, data about prevalence of mutations in these genes, in different localizations of CRC tumors, are limited.

Material and methods:
We examined the frequency of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in 500 Caucasian CRC patients (200 women and 300 men, median age 66 years). DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues using a Qiagen QIAamp DNA FFPE-kit. Analysis of mutations was carried out using the KRAS/BRAF, NRAS and BRAF Mutation Analysis Kit for Real-Time PCR (EntroGen) with the Cobas 480 realtime PCR apparatus (Roche Diagnostics).

Results:
KRAS mutations were detected in 190 patients (38%), NRAS mutations in 20 patients (4%), and BRAF mutations in 24 patients (4.8%). There were no associations between age of CRC patients and frequency of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF gene mutations. These mutations were significantly more often diagnosed in women (55.5%) than in men (41%, p < 0.005). Tumors of the rectum and sigmoideum were the most often observed in both groups of CRC patients – with and without KRAS, NRAS and BRAF gene mutations. However, transverse colon, ascending colon and cecum cancers were the most often affected by mutations.

Conclusions:
Our study showed that the occurrence of mutations in the KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes is not accidental and depends on the location of CRC tumors.

eISSN:1896-9151
ISSN:1734-1922