Brain natriuretic peptides, released in response to left ventricular stress, have a strong prognostic value in dialysis patients. However, their role in detecting abnormalities of fluid status is under debate; the relationship between volume status and brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs) differs among various studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical utility of N-terminal proBNP in the assessment of fluid status and cardiovascular risk in this setting.

Material and methods:
The study included 65 children: 10 pre-dialysis, 13 hemodialysis, 12 peritoneal dialysis patients and 30 healthy controls. Volume status was determined by multifrequency bioimpedance and NT-pro-BNP, as well as echocardiography to estimate the left ventricle structure and function.

The median log NT-proBNP values of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were 3.66 (2.05–4.90) and 3.57 (2.51–4.13) pg/ml, respectively, and significantly higher compared with the control group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). On simple correlation, NT-proBNP was correlated with markers of volume overload and cardiac dysfunction. On multivariate regression analysis, only left ventricle mass index (β = 0.402, p = 0.003) and left atrium diameter (β = 0.263, p = 0.018) were independently associated with NT-proBNP (adjusted R2 of the model: 0.707, p < 0.001).

Our research suggested that NT-proBNP, which was correlated with LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction and fluid overload as assessed by bioimpedance, can be used to evaluate cardiovascular states in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. From the early stages of CKD, periodic monitoring of NT-proBNP levels may be essential for early detection of patients with high risk of cardiovascular events, and for taking preventive intervention as soon as possible.