This study sought to use the latest Life's Essential 8 scoring tool to obtain information on the relationship between serum vitamin D concentration and adolescent cardiovascular health (CVH).

Material and methods:
A total of 1,819 teenagers aged 16–19 were enrolled. Associations between serum vitamin D concentrations and CVH ratings were estimated using multiple linear regression and multinomial logistic regression methods, and the dose–response relationship was examined by restricted cubic spline analysis.

After adjusting for all confounding factors, serum vitamin D concentrations were positively correlated with CVH scores (β=0.12; 95% CI: 0.09-0.14, p<0.001). Among the sex and race subgroups, the correlation was stronger in male, Mexican American and Non-Hispanic Black participants, with ORs of 1.05 (95% CI: 1.03-1.07), 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04-1.08), p=0.002), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03-1.11), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05-1.14), p=0.01, 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.06), and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09), p=0.01, respectively. Serum vitamin D concentrations had a nonlinear relationship with CVH ratings. CVH scores grew with serum vitamin D concentrations up to the inflection point (86 nmol/L) (β=0.17 (95% CI: 0.135-0.206, p<0.001). When serum vitamin D concentrations exceeded 86 nmol/L, CVH scores were not associated with serum vitamin D concentrations.

The study identifies a nonlinear relationship between serum vitamin D levels and CVH in US adolescents aged 16-19, with an inflection point at 86 nmol/L. These findings underscore the importance of vitamin D in adolescent cardiovascular health and suggest the need for targeted health strategies, particularly in high-risk groups such as male, Mexican American, and Non-Hispanic Black teenagers.

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