Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with cardiovascular disease and subclinical atherosclerosis
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Submission date: 2016-03-03
Final revision date: 2016-05-19
Acceptance date: 2016-05-19
Online publication date: 2017-07-05
Publication date: 2018-10-31
Arch Med Sci 2018;14(6):1233–1244
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to fatty infiltration of liver in the absence of significant alcohol intake, use of steatogenic medication, or hereditary disorders. It is a common cause of chronic liver disease with a worldwide estimated prevalence ranging from 6.3% to 33%. The NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress are central to pathogenesis of NAFLD, and risk factors include metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, obesity, lack of physical activity, smoking, and high fat diet. NAFLD is associated with higher mortality as compared to the general population with cardiovascular disease being the most common cause of death. The NAFLD is associated with a higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis as evidenced by odds of higher coronary artery calcification, higher average and maximum carotid intima-media thickness. It is also associated with stiff arteries as evidenced by higher cardio-ankle vascular index and higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Increasing evidence has linked NAFLD with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The NAFLD is associated with a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), more severe CAD, poor coronary collateral development, and higher incidence of coronary events. The NAFLD is also associated with ischemic stroke. Studies have shown that the association between NAFLD and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases is independent of shared risk factors.