Cardiomyocyte mitochondria as targets of humoral factors released by remote ischemic preconditioning
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Submission date: 2016-06-13
Final revision date: 2016-06-29
Acceptance date: 2016-06-30
Online publication date: 2016-08-16
Publication date: 2017-02-21
Arch Med Sci 2017;13(2):448–458
Introduction: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces myocardial infarct size, and protection can be transferred with plasma to other individuals, even across species. Mitochondria are the end-effectors of cardioprotection by local ischemic conditioning maneuvers. We have now analyzed mitochondrial function in response to RIPC.
Material and methods: Plasma from pigs undergoing placebo or RIPC (infarct size reduction by 67% in RIPC pigs compared to placebo) was transferred to isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion for infarct size measurement. Additional experiments were terminated at 10 min reperfusion to isolate mitochondria for functional measurements. Effects of RIPC pig plasma were compared to local ischemic preconditioning (IPC) or to infusion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).
Results: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced an infarct of 41 ±2% of total ventricular mass. Placebo pig plasma did not affect infarct size (38 ±1, p = 0.13). The RIPC pig plasma reduced infarct size (27 ±2, p < 0.001), as did IPC (20 ±1, p < 0.001) and TNF-α (28 ±2, p < 0.001). Associated with cardioprotection, reductions of mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and calcium retention capacity (CRC) by I/R and placebo pig plasma were prevented by RIPC pig plasma, as they were by IPC and TNF-α. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production (nmol H2O2/100 µg protein) induced by I/R (272 ±34) was comparable in response to placebo pig plasma (234 ±28, p = 0.37) and was reduced by RIPC pig plasma (83 ±15, p < 0.001) as well as by IPC (78 ±21, p < 0.001) and TNF- (125 ±42, p = 0.002).
Conclusions: In rat myocardium, mitochondria are an intracellular target of protection induced by humoral factors retrieved from pigs undergoing RIPC.