Clinical research
The relationship of vitamin D with non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with metabolic syndrome
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Submission date: 2011-11-20
Final revision date: 2012-04-08
Acceptance date: 2012-05-11
Online publication date: 2012-07-04
Publication date: 2012-06-30
Arch Med Sci 2012;8(3):437–443
Introduction: Several studies implicate an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)Vit D) serum levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to investigate a possible relationship between 25(OH)Vit D and emerging risk factors associated with MetS, such as small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C) concentration, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels.
Material and methods: We studied 110 consecutive otherwise healthy individuals. Of these, 52 were diagnosed with MetS and 58 who did not meet the MetS criteria served as controls. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclass analysis was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Lp-PLA2 activity was determined in total plasma by the trichloroacetic acid precipitation procedure. Serum 25(OH)Vit D was determined quantitatively by an enzyme immunoassay method.
Results: Metabolic syndrome subjects had significantly lower 25(OH)Vit D levels (11.8 [0.6-48.3] ng/ml; 29.5 [1.5-120.75] nmol/l) compared with controls (17.2 [4.8-62.4] ng/ml; 43 [12-156] nmol/l, p = 0.027). Univariate regression analysis showed that 25(OH)Vit D concentration was inversely related to triglycerides (r = –0.416, p = 0.003) and sdLDL-C (r = –0.305, p = 0.004). There was no association of 25(OH)Vit D with waist circumference, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting glucose, Lp-PLA2 and hsCRP. In multivariate regression analysis the relationship between 25(OH)Vit D and sdLDL-C became insignificant when triglycerides were included in the model.
Conclusions: Subjects with MetS exhibit lower 25(OH)Vit D serum levels compared with non-MetS individuals. Low 25(OH)Vit D is associated with higher sdLDL-C levels possibly through elevated triglycerides. No association between 25(OH)Vit D and Lp-PLA2 or hsCRP was found.