Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder with a variable clinical course, ranging from mild to severe forms. It mainly occurs in women, especially those of fertile age. The aim of the study was to systematically analyze the associations of perinatal disease activity with adverse outcomes of Chinese patients with SLE and their off-spring.

Material and methods:
Data of prenatal SLE patients and healthy pregnant woman admitted to our hospital during the period October 2001 to January 2018 were retrospectively collected, and the status of offspring of SLE patients was followed up in March 2020. Disease activity was evaluated by SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2k), and those with scores > 6 were defined as having active disease.

In total, 198 deliveries of 194 SLE patients and 199 deliveries of healthy women were documented. Maternal and fetal adverse outcomes occurred in 74 (37.4%) and 90 (45.5%) deliveries of SLE patients, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects. Among SLE patients, the active group had higher rates of gestational hypertension (p < 0.001), reeclampsia/eclampsia (p < 0.001), low birth weight (p < 0.001), premature birth (p < 0.001) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) (p < 0.01) than the inactive group. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that perinatal renal activity was associated with gestational hypertension (OR 4.43, p < 0.001), preeclampsia/ eclampsia (OR 9.14, p < 0.001), low birth weight (OR 2.24, p < 0.05) and premature birth (OR 4.20, p < 0.001). Compared with the general population, offspring of SLE patients had relatively high rates of eczema (50/142, 35.2%) and congenital heart disease (6/142, 4.2%), which were irrelevant to perinatal disease activity, but related to specific antibodies.

For perinatal women with SLE, renal activity is associated with a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, maternal perinatal disease activity does not seem to affect the growth of their offspring

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