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Heart failure in the diabetic population – pathophysiology, diagnosis and management
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Submission date: 2013-06-05
Final revision date: 2013-11-01
Acceptance date: 2013-11-04
Online publication date: 2014-06-27
Publication date: 2014-06-30
Arch Med Sci 2014;10(3):546–556
Evidence from clinical trials repeatedly confirms the association of diabetes with heart failure, independent of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease. However, the importance of coexistence of diabetes and heart failure is not universally recognized, despite the fact that it may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality of the diabetic population. It seems that prevention of heart failure, early diagnosis, and appropriate management could improve the outcome. Unfortunately, the etiology of heart failure in diabetic patients is still to be elucidated. It is multifactorial in nature and several cellular, molecular and metabolic factors are implicated. Additionally, there are still no definite guidelines on either the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients or on the therapy of diabetes in subjects with heart failure. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevention of heart failure in the diabetic population as well as management of both comorbidities.