CARDIOLOGY / RESEARCH PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
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ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Studies on the association between calf circumference (CC) and mortality has been limited. Therefore, we examined the association between CC and all-cause, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in the present study.

Material and methods:
The data was retrieved from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES), composing of 20, 214 individuals aged ≥ 18 years with CC being measured. We performed multivariate Cox regression models to examine the associations, then stratified the regression models into subgroups to test for interactions.

Results:
Among 20, 214 participants, 47.25% were men and the mean age was 45.8 years. In the fully adjusted model, each 1 cm increment in CC was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.90-0.94, P < 0.0001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 0.90, 95%CI = 0.84-0.97, P = 0.0056). Meanwhile, the highest quartile of CC had 50% (HR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.64, P trend < 0.001) lower risk of all-cause mortality and 57% (HR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.21-0.88, P trend = 0.045) lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, compared to the lowest quartile of CC. For cerebrovascular mortality, CC did not have significant associations with mortality.

Conclusions:
Our results suggested an independently inverse association between CC and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

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