Beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on adiponectin levels and AdipoR gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial
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Submission date: 2016-03-23
Final revision date: 2016-06-08
Acceptance date: 2016-06-27
Online publication date: 2016-09-02
Publication date: 2017-06-08
Arch Med Sci 2017;13(4):716–724
Introduction: There is evidence that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert beneficial effects to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its complications remain poorly understood. Hypoadiponectinemia is one of the important mechanisms responsible for T2DM which necessitates developing novel therapeutic strategies. We aimed to determine the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on circulating adiponectin and mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) and Sirt-1 in T2DM patients.
Material and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 10-week follow-up of n-3 PUFAs (2.7 g/day) vs. placebo in T2DM patients (n = 88) was conducted. In detail, T2DM patients (n = 44) were treated with n-3 PUFAs and the remainder received placebo. Anthropometric and metabolic characteristics were assessed in all participants. Circulating level of adiponectin and mRNA expression of AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and Sirt-1 were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using real-time polymerase chain reaction before and after the intervention.
Results: It was found that n-3 PUFAs increased AdipoR1 gene expression (fold change = 1.321 in n-3 PUFAs vs. 1.037 in placebo) and AdipoR2 mRNA (fold change = 1.338 in n-3 PUFAs vs. 1.034 in placebo). No significant changes were observed for Sirt-1 expression. The serum level of adiponectin significantly (p = 0.035) increased in n-3 PUFAs (5.09 to 5.58 g/ml) but remained unchanged in the placebo group.
Conclusions: Daily supplementation with n-3 PUFAs (2.7 g) was effective to significantly improve gene expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the serum level of adiponectin in T2DM patients. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs might emerge as an adjuvant for current antidiabetic therapies. However, confirmatory long-term studies are required.