Clinical research
Life satisfaction and cardiovascular disease risk in Poland
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Submission date: 2012-01-13
Final revision date: 2012-09-05
Acceptance date: 2012-10-09
Online publication date: 2013-08-08
Publication date: 2013-08-31
Arch Med Sci 2013;9(4):629–634
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. Life satisfaction is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, irrespectively of objective measures of health status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between life satisfaction (LS) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) assessed with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in Polish adults.
Material and methods: Past, present and projected LS were estimated. The FRS reflecting 10-year CVD risk was calculated from health indices and lifestyle parameters. Relationships between LS and FRS were tested by two-way analysis of variance in 489 men and 591 women, 40–50 years of age.
Results: Subjects with a reduction in LS over time had a higher FRS compared to peers with an improvement in LS. The relationship between current LS and FRS had a J-shape in men; FRS was lowest in men with an LS of 5–7 (average LS), slightly higher in men with an LS of 8–10 (highest LS), and highest in men with an LS of 1–4 (lowest LS). Among women, there was an inverse linear relationship between LS and FRS: the higher the LS, the lower FRS. There was a strong linear relationship between predicted LS and CVD risk. Highest risk was evident in subjects with low LS in whom low LS was predicted over the next five years.
Conclusions: Low LS (dissatisfaction) thus has a long-term negative effect on CVD risk in Polish adults of both sexes.