Hydrogen excretion in pediatric lactose malabsorbers: relation to symptoms and the dose of lactose
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Submission date: 2015-08-08
Final revision date: 2015-10-09
Acceptance date: 2015-10-19
Online publication date: 2016-07-20
Publication date: 2017-12-20
Arch Med Sci 2018;14(1):88–93
Introduction: Lactose malabsorption arises from lactase deficiency and may lead to lactose intolerance – gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion. Occurrence and severity of the symptoms are influenced by many factors, including the dose of lactose and the intensity of its colonic fermentation to short chain fatty acids and gases.
Material and methods: The hydrogen breath test (HBT) after 30 g or 50 g of lactose was performed in 387 children. Further analysis included children who had a positive HBT result. The HBT parameters were net hydrogen concentration in each breath and total net hydrogen concentration during the HBT. The time of the first hydrogen rise was also calculated. HBT parameters were analyzed according to symptoms occurrence (lack or present), symptoms severity (lack, moderate or severe) and the dose of lactose (30 g or 50 g).
Results: One hundred and six children (12.1 years, 46 boys) had a positive HBT result. Symptoms occurrence was positively related to net hydrogen concentration at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min (p < 0.001 at each time point), as well as to the total net hydrogen concentration (p < 0.001). There were no differences in hydrogen excretion between subjects with moderate and severe symptoms after lactose ingestion. Symptoms were more frequent in subjects given 50 g of lactose than in those given 30 g of lactose (79% vs. 47%, p = 0.003). In both dose groups symptoms occurrence was related to hydrogen excretion.
Conclusions: Symptoms occurrence is closely related to hydrogen excretion and to the dose of ingested lactose.