Levels of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor and polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis
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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui, China
Department of Nephrology, The Second Linked Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China
Submission date: 2018-03-06
Final revision date: 2018-09-14
Acceptance date: 2018-09-28
Online publication date: 2019-05-31
Arch Med Sci 2021;17(5)
Several published results have established variations in respect to plasma/serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels and gene polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study gave a more concise estimation on the MIF levels for SLE patients and established the association between MIF polymorphisms and SLE.

Material and methods:
All articles were searched from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wan-Fang, Chinese Biological Medical Literature, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure up to 6th October 2017, with no language restriction. Pooled standard mean difference with 95% confidence interval was evaluated using random effect model. Thirteen articles were used for this meta-analysis, with 620 SLE patients and 779 healthy controls assessed for MIF levels, and 2,159 SLE patients and 2,574 healthy controls considered for MIF-173 C/G and MIF-794 CATT polymorphisms.

There was a significant higher MIF levels in SLE patients than in healthy controls (p = 0.004). The subgroup analysis showed Asians and ages < 30 had higher MIF levels in SLE patients than in healthy controls. It was evident that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus diseases activity index scores < 8 and ≥ 8, and disease duration for both year < 5 and ≥ 5 of SLE had higher MIF levels when compared to healthy controls. We found a significant association between SLE and MIF-173 C/G, but not MIF-794 CATT.

This study provided evidence of significant higher MIF levels in SLE patients and supported the association of MIF-173 C/G and SLE. However, we were not able to establish an association between MIF-794 CATT and SLE.