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Hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular complications: a narrative review on the basis of pathophysiology
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Submission date: 2012-03-11
Final revision date: 2012-07-18
Acceptance date: 2012-08-20
Online publication date: 2013-11-05
Publication date: 2013-10-31
Arch Med Sci 2013;9(5):944–952
Cardiovascular complications are important in hyperthyroidism because of their high frequency in clinical presentation and increased mortality and morbidity risk. The cause of hyperthyroidism, factors related to the patient, and the genetic basis for complications are associated with risk and the basic underlying mechanisms are important for treatment and management of the disease. Besides cellular effects, hyperthyroidism also causes hemodynamic changes, such as increased preload and contractility and decreased systemic vascular resistance causes increased cardiac output. Besides tachyarrythmias, impaired systolic ventricular dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction may cause thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of the patients, as another high mortality complication. Although the medical literature has some conflicting data about benefits of treatment of subclinical hyperthyroidism, even high-normal thyroid function may cause cardiovascular problems and it should be treated. This review summarizes the cardiovascular consequences of hyperthyroidism with underlying mechanisms.