The present study investigated the anti-acute myeloid leukemia effects of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam leaf aqueous extract conjugated cadmium nanoparticles.

Material and methods:
To synthesize cadmium nanoparticles (CdNPs), Z. clinopodioides aqueous extract was mixed with Cd(NO3)2 . 4 H2O. The characterization of the biosynthesized cadmium nanoparticles was carried out using many various techniques such as UV-Vis. and FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD, FE-SEM, and EDS.

The uniform spherical morphology of NPs was proved by FE-SEM images with NPs the average size of 26.78 nm. For investigating the antioxidant properties of Cd(NO3)2, Z. clinopodioides, CdNPs, and daunorubicin, the DPPH test was used. The cadmium nanoparticles inhibited half of the DPPH molecules in a concentration of 196 µg/ml. To survey the cytotoxicity and anti-acute myeloid leukemia effects of Cd(NO3)2, Z. clinopodioides, CdNPs, and daunorubicin, MTT assay was used on the human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines i.e., murine C1498, 32D-FLT3-ITD, and Human HL-60/vcr. The IC50 of the cadmium nanoparticles was 168, 205, and 210 µg/ml against murine C1498, 32D-FLT3-ITD, and human HL-60/vcr cell lines, respectively. In the in vivo part of the study, DMBA was used for inducing acute myeloid leukemia in mice. CdNPs, similar to daunorubicin, ameliorated significantly (p ≤ 0.01) the biochemical, inflammatory, RBC, WBC, platelet, stereological, histopathological, and cellular-molecular parameters compared to the other groups.

The cadmium nanoparticles had significant anti-acute myeloid leukemia effects. After approving the above results in the clinical trial studies, these cadmium nanoparticles can be used as a chemotherapeutic drug to treat acute myeloid leukemia in humans.