The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of laparoscopic versus open dismembered pyeloplasty in children.

Material and methods:
Two hundred and twenty-six Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasties were performed, out of which 131 by open access (OP) and 95 by laparoscopic access (LP). Retrospective analysis of data was performed. The median follow-up was 3 years for LP patients and 6 years for OP patients (p < 0.05).

Success was achieved in 87 (91.57%) patients who had LP surgeries and in 121 (91.7%) patients who had OP (p > 0.05). Eight patients in the LP group and nine in the OP group required another surgery because of recurrent UPJO, and one patient in the OP group required a nephrectomy. The median operating time was 125 min (range: 70–225) for LP surgeries and 90 (40–200) for OP surgeries (p < 0.05). In the last 30 LP procedures, operation time decreased to a median of 95 min. Improvement in ultrasound analysis of the kidney was achieved in 89.06% of patients who had LP and 82.35% of patients who had OP. A stable or better function of the kidney in diuretic renography was achieved in 87.5% of patients in the LP group and 96.15% of patients in the OP group.

Laparoscopic and open pyeloplasty is a highly efficient procedure employed to treat UPJO in children with comparable success rates in both groups. In experienced hands, it is possible to reduce the LP operation time to that comparable to the OP group.